Factory Automation

Design for Manufacturing and Design for Assembly

You’ve got a great new or updated product that you’re rushing to put into production as quickly as possible. While it may be tempting to take shortcuts in the early design phases, make sure that design for manufacturing (DFM) and design for automation (DFA) are included early. 

What are DFM and DFA?

Design for manufacturing often referred to as DFM – the goal of DFM is to ensure that the most cost-effective materials, parts, and processes are used to produce a product.

Design for automation, also referred to as DFA – traditionally, DFA meant design for assembly. Now designing for assembly must also take into considerations for automation. DFA can reduce labor costs, improve quality, and increase consistency in the production process.

Why can’t DFM and DFA be done closer to production? 

The early design stages are when it’s much easier to make changes. Late changes will delay your time to market, cost more, and be more difficult to implement. Including DFM and DFA early and throughout the design process minimizes costs while improving quality and efficiency. Even if you’re redesigning an existing product, it’s worth tearing down the current design and making the best choices for your current manufacturing and automation capabilities. 

How can DFM and DFA minimize costs and speed time to market?

Prevent problems

The earliest choices made about materials and processes are critical.  Either the material or the process can drive decision-making.  If several materials could be used, then look at the production processes for each material. If you want to use an existing production process, then look at the materials that are most compatible with that process. 

Designing for automation includes answering the engineering questions around how you are going to grip the part? What features will make assembly easier, such as chamfers on mating parts. What features will the tooling need? Will your pallet need a left and right considerations, and how will they be error proofed if there is a manual load station. DFA will cover all these special considerations.

Speed production

Designing for automation allows the product to seamlessly move into production without having to start thinking about automation late in the game. What setup is required? How quickly can changeovers be done? By asking these questions at the earliest stages, the overall part design can accommodate faster production and automation tooling design.

+fastening methods, type of adhesive used

+modular design? Applicable to small part assembly?

+automation: tooling

Minimize errors

Make assembly mistake-proof by using tabs, slots, foolproof orientation, colors and other best practices.

Ensure that tolerances are reasonable for the processes being used, and that quality can be checked  easily and frequently.

+DFA: self-locating parts

Maximize yield

With fewer mistakes in assembly, waste can be minimized if not eliminated; which maximizes yield.

Reduce costs

By making choices with manufacturing and automation in mind, you can 

  • actively select common materials and parts to reduce inventory.

DFA- what level of automation makes the most sense? This usually depends on volume and tooling flexibility.

Manufacturers that use DFM – design for manufacturing and DFA design for automation can get to market faster as parts fit together tooling works better and the entire assembly process is smoother.

At Ehrhardt Engineered Solutions we are experts at helping our clients design parts that are easier to feed, pick, place and assemble. Contact us at 877-386-7856 or email us at

Factory Automation

What is the Cost of Factory Automation

Automation savings extend beyond labor costs

Decades ago, manufacturers that were considering using automation compared the cost of automating against the direct cost of labor they’d be replacing. Adding the number of people, shifts, and hours provided a benchmark to use for determining ROI.

That same basic calculation can be used as a starting point today; the benchmark ROI of an automation project now is typically under 24 months. However, that historical capital expenditure calculation excludes many important factors that should also be considerations:

Is human labor even available?
What additional strategic advantages does automation offer?
What is the total cost and value of ownership?

Using automation to solve the labor shortage in manufacturing
With the current skilled labor shortage in many factories, the benefits of automation extend well beyond basic cost justification. When factories cannot fill open labor positions, they can’t meet production requirements. The need to increase production without recruiting will often drive a company to invest in automation. The costs of not being able to fulfill orders and losing customers has long-reaching implications that extend beyond a basic ROI calculation.

In addition to keeping production running, automation also helps companies attract workers. People who are interested in working in manufacturing are more likely to choose a company that is actively investing in automation and robotics and is poised to be competitive now and in the future. As well, for people looking for security, a company that has recently invested in automation will appear more stable and secure than a company that isn’t modernizing its operations.

Instead of replacing workers with robots, manufacturers are adding robotics and automation and retraining their valuable labor force for positions that include working with collaborative robots and using automation solutions.

Benefiting from the strategic advantages of automation
In addition to using automation to help attract and retain labour, automation offers many other strategic advantages.

Elevating health & safety levels by automating dangerous jobs
Using automation and robotics for dull, dirty, dangerous jobs can help factories develop an impressive safety record. Health & safety levels can be a deciding factor for potential employees, investors, and customers. In addition to reducing dangerous jobs, robots can also be used for repetitive movements, leaving humans with ergonomic jobs that won’t cause repetitive stress injury.

Increasing scalability and flexibility with automation
When companies first started implementing automation, the cost equation was most favorable for industries like automotive manufacturing with low mix, high volume production needs. Now, with the reduced cost of automation and the availability of collaborative robots, automation makes financial sense for factories that have a wide range of higher mix, lower volume production runs.
With an automated line or automated production cells, manufacturers can be better equipped to take on bigger orders, or to offer a wider range of options.

Raising quality levels using the repeatability and reliability of automation
A properly programmed robot can perform the same movement the same way with a higher degree of accuracy than a human. New vision capabilities give robotics an even higher capacity for quality control and repeatability. Depending on the type of production being done, this high repeatability and quality potential can be exploited to a manufacturer’s advantage. As well, with data collection and management, traceability can also be incorporated into the manufacturing process.

Winning contracts with automation as a competitive edge
If a customer is comparing several manufacturers, and you’re able to offer the quality, reliability and efficiency benefits of using an automated solution, you’ll have an edge over the other factories using older, less reliable systems. The better-equipped factory will seem more likely to be able to deliver in-spec goods on time.
Understanding the total cost and value of ownership

When evaluating the cost of automation, it’s important to consider the manufacturer’s situation: are they in a survive-or-die scenario or are they in a position to invest in longer-term growth? Automation can provide the solution to both of these issues, and both must be considered in order to budget properly.

With too much focus on immediate needs, future growth won’t be supported; but, with too much emphasis on the future, the current financial position of a company can be compromised. It’s important to discuss potential growth plans with an implementer so that the foundation for a future phase of automation can be accommodated while respecting immediate needs and budget constraints.

The planning and implementation process are also important factors to consider. Having an experienced implementation team that can design a robust system, provide the integration needed with other systems, and deliver the system on time is invaluable.
As far as tangible goods that must be accounted for, there is the cost of the new machinery, plus spare parts and maintenance. For tangible value, the decreased cost of rework and rejects should be factored in.
Although it can be tempting to simplify the ROI calculation, to maximize your investment in automation, it’s essential to consider all costs and all value gained over the productive life of an automated solution.

Do you need factory automation or a custom machine. Do you need to learn more about using a robot or automation for a specific production process? Contact us at Ehrhardt Engineered Systems at: 877-386-7856 or email us at